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פרק א משנה י
כל העושה מצוה אחת

Anyone who does one [more] mitzvah (such that the quantity and quality of all of his mitzvos outweigh the aggregate of all of his aveiros),

מטיבין לו

he is benefited,

ומאריכין לא ימיו

his days are prolonged

and he inherits the land;

וכל שאינו עושה מצוה אחת

and anyone who does not do one [more] mitzvah (such that the quantity and quality of all of his mitzvos do not outweigh the aggregate of all of his aveiros),

אין מטיבין לו

he is not benefited,

ואין מאריכין לא ימיו

his days are not prolonged

ואינו נוחל את הארץ

and he does not inherit the land.

כל שישנו במקרא

Anyone who is involved in Scripture,

ובמשנה

and the Mishna (i.e. halacha)

ובדרך ארץ

and common decency

לא במהרה הוא חוטא

will not easily sin,

שנאמר

as it says

והחוט המשלש לא במהרה ינתק

"and the three-ply string is not easily broken";

(קהלת ד:יב)

 

Anyone who is not involved in Scripture,

ולא במשנה

and not Mishna

ולא בדרך ארץ

and not common decency

אינו מן הישוב

is not of civilization.

 

 

פרק ב משנה א
האיש מקדש בו ובשלוחו

A man can betroth [a woman] himself or by an agent,

האשה מתקדשת בה ובשלוחה 

a woman can be betrothed by herself or through an agent;

האיש מקדש את בתו

a man can betroth his daughter

כשהיא נערה

while she is a naarah

בו ובשלוחו 

himself or through an agent.

האומר לאשה

One who says to a woman

התקדשי לי בתמרה זו

"You or betrothed to me with this date,

התקדשי לי בזו

you are betrothed to me with this"

אם יש באחת מהן

if one of them has

שוה פרוטה

the value of a prutah

מקדשת

she is betrothed,

ואם לאו אינה מקדשת

and if not, she is not betrothed;

בזו ובזו ובזו

[but if he said] "with this, and this, and this,"

אם יש שוה פרוטה בכולן

if they are worth a prutah in the aggregate,

מקדשת

she is betrothed,

ואם לאו אינה מקדשת

and if not, she is not betrothed;

היתה אוכלת ראשונה ראשונה

[if as he was giving them to her] she was eating them one by one

אינה מקדשת

she is not betrothed

עד שיהא באחת מהן

unless one of them (the last one) has

שוה פרוטה

the value of a prutah.

 

 

NOTES

משנה א

בו ובשלוחו - While one may use an agent,  לחתחילה one should do it oneself, as מצוה בו יותר מבשלוחו.

נערה - This is a girl between 12 and 12 years of age who also has two pubic hairs.  Although one can marry off one's daughter at a younger age, the mishna specifies a נערה as it is אסור לחתחילה to marry off one's daughter until she is old enough to consent to her father's choice of husband.

התקדשי לי בתמרה זו התקדשי לי בזו - Due to the use of this double לשון, it is as if he made two separate offers of קידושין, and so one of them must meet the minimum requirement of being שוה פרוטה.

עד שיהא באחת מהן שוה פרוטה - This is the same as the previous case, in which the man said "בזו ובזו ובזו".  Since they are grouped together, and the קידושין therefore does not take effect until she had received the last date, her receiving the first two תמרים did not complete the process of קידושין.  As such, by eating the first two תמרים before the קידושין could be חל, she indebted herself to him for them,  Furthermore, since the annulment of a debt cannot be used to affect קידושין, the last date given must be שוה פרוטה for there to be קידושין in such a case.

 

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